Glossary of Terms


1st Party Audience

An audience that was built using a company or entity's proprietary technology. See audience.



See Third-Party Ad Server.

3rd Party Audience

An audience that was built using anonymous data that's not specific to a single company or entity. See audience.



When a user leaves a shopping cart with something in it without completing the transaction.


When a Web server does not successfully transfer content or an ad to a browser. This usually occurs when a user hits the stop button or clicks on another link prior to the completion of a download.

Above The Fold

When an ad is placed on a website above the scroll line as the page is viewed before any scrolling occurs, the term is derived from newspaper print advertising; when an ad is in view before scrolling.

Accepted ID

A device ID that is not deemed to be reliable, persistant, and meets any filters that have been applied to a partner's subset of cross-device data. Therefore, it can potentially be connected to related ID's in the Tapad Device Graph.


To create related associations between IDs, accuracy involves looking at the quality in the percentage of correctly assigned or incorrectly assigned edges, or connected device nodes. It is statistically calculated as: (true positives + false positives) / (true negatives + false negatives + true positives + false positives), by applying subscriber data to device connections within the graph.


See Automatic Content Recognition

Activity Audit

Verification of measured activity ( Some of the key metrics validated are ad impressions, page impressions, clicks, total visits and unique users, etc.) for a specified time period.

Ad Analytics

Tools and metrics used to measure the effectiveness of advertising campaigns and activities.

Ad Audience

The number of unique users exposed to an ad within a specific time period.

Ad Banner

A graphic image or other media object used as an advertisement. See Banner Ad.

Ad Blocker

Software on a user‘s browser that prevents advertisements from being displayed.

Ad Campaign Audit

An activity audit for a specific ad campaign. See Activity Audit.

Ad Centric Measurement

Audience measurement derived from a third-party ad server's own server logs.

Ad Choices

The Ghostery (formerly Evidon) ad choices program and logo helps consumers understand how they're being tracked on the Internet and gives them the ability to opt-out of online tracking. Companies that participate in this program display the triangular AdChoices logo on their online ads. Clicking the icon shows users information about an ad, why they received it and how to opt-out of future tracking.

Ad Click

The user activity of pressing a navigation button on an advertisement unit on a Website (banner, button, or text link).

Ad display/Ad delivered

When an ad is successfully displayed on the user's computer screen.

Ad Download

When an ad is downloaded by a server to a user‘s browser. Ads can be requested but aborted or abandoned before actually being downloaded to the browser - eliminating the opportunity for the user to see the ad.

Ad Exchange

A unified platform where advertisers, publishers and networks communicate to exchange data, set prices, and serve ads.

Ad Family

A collection of one or more related ads.


A resettable, anonymous and unique device identifier, employed on mobile and tablet devices in an in-app context, to improve the user experience and create data sharing for marketing purposes.

Ad Impression

An ad which is served to a user‘s browser.

Ad Impression Ratio

Click-throughs divided by ad impressions. See Clickthrough Rate.

Ad Insertion

When an ad is inserted in a document and recorded by the ad server.

Ad Materials

The creative artwork, copy, active URLs and active target sites which are used to initiate an ad campaign.

Ad Metrics

Measurements that provide data about ad performance.

Ad Ops

The team/function this is responsible for supporting the sale and delivery of online advertising. Ad Ops includes trafficking and optimizing digital ad campaigns.

Ad Recall

A measure of advertising effectiveness by assessing a sample audience exposed to an ad and if they remembered it.

Ad Request

The request for an advertisement as a direct result of a user's action as recorded by the ad server.

Ad Server

A web server dedicated to the delivery of an advertisement.

Ad Servers

Systems that deliver ads to websites, smartphones, tablets, and other digital devices. In it's most literal form, it is the last mechanism engaged prior to an ad being served in a browser; you could refer to this as the "ad server of record." (See also, Intermediaries or Facilitators).

Ad Serving

Delivery of ads by a server to an end user's computer on which the ads displayed. Normally performed either by a Web publisher or by a third-party ad server either embedded in the page or served separately.

Ad Space

A location on a webpage in which an advertisement can be placed. Each space is uniquely identified. Multiple ad spaces can exist on a single page.

Ad Targeting

When an ad is delivered to a specific demographic or audience.

Ad View

When a user is exposed to an ad.


A commercial message targeted to an advertiser‘s customer or prospect.

Ad/Advertising Network

An aggregator or broker of advertising inventory for many sites.


How one computer finds the location of another computer using the Internet. Usually a unique identifier for a computer or site online (usually a URL for a Web site) or marked with an @ for an e-mail address.


The company paying for the advertisement.


See Above The Fold.


Describes a process or set of rules followed to perform calculations or other problem solving operations.

Amplification Rate

The number of related IDs divided by the original number of 'device IDs' in a data set.

Android Advertising ID

Android advertising ID was introduced with Google Play services 4.0 on devices running Android software. Android Advertising ID is a unique user-resettable string identifier that lets ad networks and other apps anonymously identify a user. The user's advertising ID is made available to apps through APIs provided in Google Play services. Users can reset their advertising ID at any time in the Ads section of the Google Settings app. Users can also opt-out of targeted advertising based on the advertising ID by setting the appropriate ad tracking preference. When the user opts-out of targeted ads, this ad tracking preference is made available to apps through a Google Play services API.


A third party conciliator who prevents Websites from seeing a user's IP address.

Anonymous Data

A form of Probabilistic Data used to build The Tapad Device Graph™ that includes anonymous signals such as a device’s proximity to other devices, time used, its non-specific location, and context of content consumed.


See Application Programming Interface.

Apple IDFA

IDFA or "identifier for advertisers" was introduced with iOS 6 on apple mobile and tablet devices. IDFA is an unique user-resettable string identifier that lets ad networks and other apps anonymously identify a user. A user can reset their IDFA at any time in iOS settings, and IDFA values are automatically reset if the device is erased. A user can also choose to hide their IDFA from apps by selecting "Limit Ad Tracking" in the privacy setting in iOS and Apple requires app developers to honor the limit ad tracking preference in apps that collect IDFA.

Application Programming Interface

APIs are a set of programming instructions and standards that let developers access your a Web-based software application or tools. Companies provide APIs to their customers so that other software developers can design products that are powered by its service.

Aspect Ratio

The width-to-height ratio of a picture or video frame. TV broadcasts at a 4:3 (1.33:1) aspect ratio; digital TV will be broadcast with a 16:9 (1.78:1) ratio; and most feature films are shot in at least a 1.85:1 ratio. IMUs have an aspect ratio of 6:5 (330x 250; 336 x 280; and 180 x 150).


Logos, fonts and artwork used by a brand in their advertising creative.


Credit given to an advertisement or website for a successful conversion.


A well-defined group of individuals, segmented on interest, age range, lifestyle or other characteristics. Isolating an ‘Audience’ allows marketers to create targeting heuristics for more relevant messaging. Audience data is then attached to IDs that, when unified, are shareable across devices for a full and holistic consumer view

Automatic Content Recognition

Chips baked into the back of TV's identify the content on the screen in near real time by scanning the image on the display. No audio is involved.

Average View Time

The average amount of time users play a video ad.



Business-to-Business where customers are mainly other businesses.


Business-to-Consumer where customers are mainly consumers


The amount of data that can be transmitted over communications lines in a given time, expressed as kilobits per second (kbps) or megabits per second (Mbps).


Image-based advertisements that stretch across the top or bottom of a website or down the right or left sidebar.

Banner Ads

Rectangular (horizontal or vertical) online ads. Width and height are usually measured in pixels. Common types of banner ads include: Full banners (468x60), Leaderboards (728x90), Medium rectangle (300x250), Skyscraper (120x600)


A tiny image referenced by a line of HTML or a block of JavaScript code embedded into a website or third party ad server to track activity. Also known as a web bug, 1 by 1 GIF, invisible GIF and tracking pixel.

Behavioral Targeting

Online advertising delivered to consumers based on their current and past Web activity.


A test version of a product prior to final release.


Software that responds to opportunities to place an ad on a website or app in real time.


A URL shortening service used in social networking, SMS and email.

Bonus Impressions

Additional ad impressions above the commitments outlined in the approved insertion order.

Brand Metrics

Used to measure the effectiveness of brand performance including brand lift, affinity and favorability


A software program that can request, download, cache and display documents available on the World Wide Web.


A clickable graph that contains certain functionality, such as taking one someplace or executive a program. Buttons can also be ads.



Memory used to temporarily store the most frequently requested content/files/pages in order to speed delivery to the user. Caches can be local (on the browser) or on a network.

Cascading Style Sheet

CSS refers to a style sheet used to describe a presentation of a document written in a markup language that is typically more elegant than straight HTML to quickly specify the look and feel of a web page.


A band of similar content or a type of sales outlet (also known as channel of distribution).

Click Rate

Ratio of ad clicks to ad impressions.


The action of following a link within an advertisement or editorial content to another web site or another page or frame within the web site.


Used to measure the reaction of a user to an internet ad.

Clickthrough Rate

CTR refers to clicks created per impression.


A group of nodes connected together, representing a single entity. Also known as a “connected component.”


Campaign Management System.


Short for compressor/decompressor. Computer algorithms that are used to compress the size of audio, video and image files for streaming over a data network or storage on a computer. Some common examples are: Apple‘s QuickTime, Microsoft‘s Windows Media Video and MP3.

Combined Data (Approach)

The use of both login data and anonymous data inputs to create edges between IDs. This process provides the greatest volume of high confidence connections, often measured in the ninetieth-plus percentile of precision.


A link between a pair of nodes in a graph structure. In the Tapad Device Graph,™ an edge represents an association, or “connection,” between two Device IDs

Connectivity Rate

The number of device IDs a partner has synced with Tapad that have one or more connections in the Tapad Device Graph™ divided by the total number of device IDs a partner has synced with Tapad over a specific period of time.


Simply defined, a consumer is a single person, individual, entity or device user. These words are often used interchangeably.

Contextual Targeting

The practice of buying online advertising based on where a particular ad appears, rather than on the consumer’s online behavior.

Control Group

Consumers who were not exposed to an ad. Advertisers compare the control group to an “exposed group”(a group that did see the ad) in order to show the effectiveness of the ad campaign.


A conversion occurs when a user clicks an advertisement that leads directly to a purchase, sign-up, registration, lead, or view of a key page.

Conversion Rates

The % people who see an ad and take action (purchase, sign-up, opt-in/out, etc.) on it. See CPA.


Small text files that store data in your computer's browser.

COPPA (Children’s Online Privacy Protection Act)

An act enacted by Congress in 1998 which prohibits unfair or deceptive acts or practices in connection with the collection, use, or disclosure of personally identifiable information from and about children on the Internet. Section 6502(b)(1) of the Act sets forth a series of general privacy protections to prevent unfair or deceptive online information collection from or about children, and directs the Commission to adopt regulations to implement those protections.

Cost Per Action/Acquisition

Cost of advertising based on a visitor taking a defined action (sales transaction, customer acquisition or a click) in response to an ad.

Cost Per Click

CPC refers to the cost of advertising based on the number of clicks on an ad.

Cost Per Completed View

CPCV refers to the cost an advertiser pays every time their video ad runs through to completion. Advertisers only pay for ads that finish completion. (CPCV = Cost ÷ Completed Views).

Cost Per Customer

CPC is the cost an advertiser pays to acquire a customer.

Cost Per Download

The price an advertiser pays every time a desired download occurs via an ad unit.

Cost Per Engagement

CPE refers to when the advertiser only pays when the ad (video or display) receives an interaction from the consumer. (Example: A mouse over or click-to-watch more video in a VPAID ad unit will be a paid engagement. Note the playing the video was not the counted interaction but the the click to watch more video was. 

Cost Per Impression

CPM refers to the cost per thousand impressions of an ad.

Cost Per Lead

CPL is the cost of advertising based on the number of database files (leads) received.

Cost Per Order

CPO is the cost of advertising based on the number of orders received. Also called Cost Per Transaction.

Cost Per Sale

CPS is the cost an advertiser pays per transaction type made by the buyer that resulted from a click on a banner impression. Payment depends either on the cost of lead, cost of sale or a percentage of the sale's revenue.

Cost Per Targeted Thousand Impressions

CPTM is CPM for reaching a specific audience defined by demographics or other specific characteristics.

Cost Per Transaction

See Cost Per Order.

Cost Per Video Complete

CPVC refers to when the advertiser only pays when the video duration is a 100% played. (Example: If a 30 second commercial plays fully then the client can be charged.)

Cost Per Video Complete + Viewability.

CPVC+V refers to when an advertiser only pays when the video duration is a 100% played and in view. According the IAB, a video is considered in view if at least 51% of the video shows up on the screen.


CPT refers to a media term describing the cost of 1,000 impressions.


See Cost per Action/Acquisition.


See Cost per Click.

CPC (Cost-Per-Click)

The cost of advertising based on the number of clicks received.

CPC (Cost-Per-Customer)

The cost an advertiser pays to acquire a customer.


See Cost Per Completed View.


See Cost Per Engagement.


See Cost per Install.

CPL (Cost-Per-Lead)

The cost of advertising based on the number of database files received.


See Cost Per Impression.


See Cost Per Order.


See Cost Per Sale.


See Cost-Per-Thousand.


See Cost Per Targeted Thousand Impressions.


See Cost Per Video Complete.


See Cost Per Video Complete + Viewability.

Creative Retargeting

A method that allows advertisers to show an ad to specific visitors that previously were exposed to or interacted with the advertisers’ creative.


See Customer Relationship Management.

Cross-Device (a.k.a. Cross-Platform or Cross-Screen)

Unified advertising across multiple devices (PCs, smartphones, tablets, game consoles, connected TVs.) “Cross-device” represents the most integrated form of modern, targeted advertising. Cross-device marketing involves the plan and sequence of a seamless cascade of messages and content across devices. Every aspect complements the other parts.


A task conventionally performed by contractors or employees that is turned over to a typically large, undefined group of people with an open call for responses.


See Cascading Style Sheet.


See Clickthrough Rate.

Customer Relationship Management

CRM relates to business practices that foster customer care, loyalty and/or customer support.



See Digital Advertising Alliance.

Data Management Platform

A DMP is an ad server that also incorporates data management tools. DMPs help marketers collect, organize, manage and measure data from a central location. A DMP also implements privacy controls. In advertising, the DMP facilitates targeting on a very large scale, often with customization options.

Data Matching

The probabilistic or deterministic method of comparing unique identifiers to determine whether or not they are a match.

Data Providers

Businesses that provide high-quality user data for targeting.

Daughter window

An ad that runs in a separate ad window associated with a concurrently displayed banner.


Customers (usually advertisers) that want to buy ad space.

Demand Side Platform

A DSP is a company that buys digital ad space in real time.

Demographic Targeting

The practice of serving ads to consumers based on such factors as age, sex, location, and ethnicity.


Common characteristics used for population or audience segmentation such as age, gender, household income, location, ethnicity, etc.


In the Device Graph, depth (sometimes called reach) indicates how far each device in the graph is from the root device. The root device is the first device discovered by the Device Graph during the bridging process. Depth has a range from 0 to 2.

Designated Marketing Area (or District Metered Areas)

DMAs are defined geographic regions of people who can receive the same content. It is also commonly specified in audience measurement and marketing tools. Applies to the US only. See Time and Location Targeting.

Deterministic Data

Refers to more accurate, less scalable unique identifiers (system IDs, log-ins, etc.) that are used to compare a match or an exact comparison between probabilistic data fields.

Deterministic Methodology

Commonly referred to as a statistically perfect ID matching methodology that incorporates login data. Using the word ‘deterministic’ in cross-device is a misnomer because it assumes that data inputs will always create a correct edge. While login data provides very reliable ID connections, it is not 100% perfect because of human behavior. Therefore, it is technically high quality probabilistic data. Enough people log on to their services via shared or nonowned devices that it corrupts login data edges. In other words, false positive edges go unchecked because of the assumed perfect fidelity.


All of the various types of internet connected technology we know and love. This includes all smartphones, tablets, computers and even your refrigerator!

Device Count

The total number of connected devices in the Tapad Device Graph.™

Device Fingerprinting

Specific, persistent information transmitted by a device (i.e., smartphone, tablet, desktop) used to target the device owners, even when cookies are disabled.

Device Graph

Tapad’s patent-pending, proprietary technology that helps marketers reach consumers and understand their behavior across devices while providing consumers with clear notice, persistent opt-out tools and privacy controls. See the Device Graph Page of our website.

Device IDs

IDs unique to each specific user device that can be used for targeting. These include UDID (Unique Device Identifier), IDFA (Apple’s iPhone identifier) and ODIN (Google’s Android identifier), among others.

Device-Specific or Platform-Specific Messaging

Ads designed to be delivered to and seen over only one type of device (e.g., smartphone, tablet, or desktop, etc.).


See Dynamic Hypertext Markup Language.

Digital Advertising Alliance

DAA is an online advertising association that advocates industry self-regulation.

Digital Campaign

Specific activities to promote a produce, service, or business through different mediums (television, online, TV) using a variety of advertisements

Display Ads

See Banner ads.

Display Advertising

A form of online advertising where the advertiser‘s message is shown on a destination web page, generally set off in a box at the top or bottom or to one side of the content of the page.

Distinct Point of Origin

A unique address from which a browser connects to a web site on the internet.


See Designated Marketing Area (or District Metered Areas).


See Data Management Platform.

Do Not Track

Features that let web users to opt out of all cookie tracking. See Ad choices.


The unique name that identifies an internet site. Each domain name is comprised of one high-level and one or more lower-level designator. Top-level domains (TLDs) are either generic or geographic. Generic top-level include: .com (commercial), .net (network), .ed (educational), .org (organizational, public or non-commercial), .gov (governmental), .mil (military), .biz (business), etc. Geographic domains designate countries of origin such as .us (United States), .uk (United Kingdom), .de (Germany), etc.


See Demand Side Platform.

Dynamic Ad Insertion

The process by which an ad is inserted into a page in response to a user request.

Dynamic Ad Placement

Allows for multiple ads to be rotated through one or more spaces based on placement program data.

Dynamic Ad Rotation

The delivery of ads on a rotating, random basis so that users are exposed to different ads and ads are served in different pages of the site.

Dynamic Hypertext Markup Language

DHML is an extended set of HTML commands which are used by web designers to create better animation and interactivity than HTML.

Dynamic IP Address

An IP address (assigned by an ISP to a client PC) that changes periodically.



The process of selling products or services on the web.

E-mail Advertsing

Banner ads, links or advertiser sponsorships that appear in e-mail newsletters, e-mail marketing campaigns and other commercial e-mail communications.

E-mail Campaign

Advertising campaign distributed via e-mail.

Earned media

Or "free media" refers to publicity gained through promotional efforts other than advertising - as opposed to paid media, which refers to publicity gained through advertising.


See Effective Cost Per Action.


Estimated cost per 1000 impressions. eCPM = (Media Cost / Impressions) x 1,000.


Defined by data we collect to determine if 2 or more devices are connected or related to each other in the Device Graph.

Effective Cost Per Action

eCPA refers to the action count (Lead for instance) added to on a CPL/CPA/CPS models in order to calculate how much did the advertiser actually paid for each Lead act.


A hardware or software application used to compress audio and video signals for the purpose of streaming. See Codec.


The process of compressing and separating a file into packets so that it can be delivered over a network.


A digital security proccess that makes information unreadable without the use of digital keys.


A general term used to classify interaction a consumer has with brand content, whether it be in an ad, on a brand’s site, or via a brand’s social media profile page.

Event Trackers

Primarily used for click-through tracking today, but also for companion banner interactions and video session tracking (e.g. 25%, 50%, 75%, 100%).


See Ad Exchange.

Expandable Banners

A banner ad that can expand to as large as 468 x 240 after a user clicks on it or after a user moves their cursor over the banner.


Advertising industry slang term for audience or the number of people who view a certain website or advertisement.


False Negative

An incorrect prediction that an edge does not exist between two device IDs.

False Positive

An incorrect prediction that an edge does exist between two devices.

Family/Ad Family

A collection of one or more ad creatives. Also called ad campaign.


Describes techniques and/or companies that collect data for the purposes of identifying individuals. Fingerprinting technologies use: IDs to identify individual users; Invasive device inspections to help ensure identifier uniqueness; IDs that never change and that the user cannot control; Generally, fingerprinting methodologies are undetectable and unaccountable to the individual user. Tapad is not a fingerprinting company and does not use these techniques.

First-Click Attribution

Purchase attributed to the first click the consumer makes toward purchasing an item.

Flash Cookies

Small files that store data in your computer's browser. Flash cookies get created by websites that contain or use Adobe Flash.


Adobe‘s vector-based rich media file format which is used to display interactive animations on a web page.

Floating Ad

An ad that appears to "float" over the top of the page within the main browser window, on top of the web page's normal content.


The "line" below that marks where the user has to scroll to see content not immediately visible when a web page loads in a browser. Ads or content displayed above the fold are visible without any end-user interaction.


The breakdown of media audiences into smaller and smaller segments. The proliferation of media options such as Web and mobile display technologies are often cited as key sources of audience fragmentation.

Frame Rate

The number of frames of video displayed during a given time. The higher the frame rate, the more high-quality the image will be.


Multiple, independent sections built by separate HTML files used to create a single web page.

Free Media

See Earned Media.


The number of times an ad is delivered to the same browser in a single session or time period.

Full Screen Views

The number of impressions where a video or media plays in full screen mode.



The Graphics Interchange Format is a standard web format which uses compression to store and display images.

Global System for Mobile

GSM refers to a digital mobile phone system that is widely used in Europe and most of the rest of the world outside North America.

Google Tag Manager

GTM is a service and technology that lets you add or update your website tags and mobile applications automatically.

GPS Location Data

Global Positioning System. Technology that helps advertisers locate consumers when they view an ad, message, or other online content.

Graphical User Interface

GUI refers to a program interface that enables users to interact with a computer using visual icons and a mouse.

Gross Rating Point

GRP refers to a term used to measure the size of an audience reached by a specific media (frequency × % reached).

Gross Ratings Points

GRP is a metric that originates from TV advertising. It is now being altered and adopted for digital advertising measurement, particularly by Nielsen, comScore, and Video vendors. GRP is a measurement of a campaign's "size" or impact on the desired population. The simple formula is Reach (expressed as a %: uniques / population) X frequency (impressions / uniques) X 100. The key to GRP measurement is determining which base population to use for calculation which should match the campaign targeting. If the campaign is targeted broadly to the U.S. the base population would be the U.S. online population. If the campaign is targeted to only Women 18-54 then the base population and GRP would be calculated for only that audience.


See Gross Ratings Points.


Global System for Mobile.


See Google Tag Manager.


See Graphical User Interface.


Hardware or Operating System Identifier (HWID)

See Device IDs.


A hash function is any function that can be used to map data of arbitrary size to data of fixed size. In ad-tech, “hash” almost always refers to a cryptographic hash function, which effectively anonymizes a string since it is practically impossible to invert. Importantly, a given hash function applied to a given string will consistently produce the same hashed value. SHA-1 (40 digit hexadecimal number) and MD5 (32 digit hexadecimal number) are the two most common cryptographic hash functions used in ad-tech.

History Sniffing

A practice that lets companies track an Internet user’s web browsing history on an ongoing basis without the use of cookies. The latest versions of the most common browsers use technologies that help prevent this activity.


The record of a single online transaction event stored in a log file. One page view may contain multiple hits, one for each image on a web page.

Home Page

The page designated as the main point of entry of a Web site (or main page) or the starting point when a browser first connects to the Internet. Typically, it welcomes visitors and introduces the purpose of the site, or the organization sponsoring it, and then provides links to other pages within the site.

Householding or Home IP Association

Taking data available on the HTTP request (user agent, IP address, timestamps) and intelligently mapping that user to a household or group of households for profiling.


See Hypertext Markup Language

HTML 5 Local Storage

A mechanism that lets websites store data in the user's browser.


See Hyper-Text Transfer Protocol

Hyper-Text Transfer Protocol

The format most commonly used to transfer documents on the World Wide Web.

Hypertext Markup Language

A set of codes called markup tags in a plain text file that determine what information is retrieved and how it is rendered by a browser. There are two kinds of markup tags: anchor and format. Anchor tags determine what is retrieved, and format tags determine how it is rendered. Browsers receive HTML pages from the Internet and use the information to display text, graphics, links and other elements.



See Interactive Advertising Bureau.


Internet Based Advertising


The process by which two companies exchange their own unique cookie IDs to jointly identify a user’s browser (also known as a “Cookie Sync”).


Short for “inline frame,” this is the area on a website designated for an ad to appear.


IMPS is shorthand for impressions, which is the number of times an ad has been served.


See Impressions.


See Interactive Marketing Unit

In-banner Video

Ads that are served in an IAB display ad format.

In-Page Video Ads

Delivered most often as a stand alone video ad and generally do not have other content associated with them. This format is typically home page or channel based and depends on real estate within the page dedicated for the video player.

In-Stream Video

Ads that are served in a video player.

In-Text Video Ads

Delivered from highlighted words and phrases within the text of web content. The ads are user activated and delivered only when a user chooses to move their mouse over a relevant word or phrase.

In-Unit Click

A measurement of a user-initiated action of responding to an ad element which generally causes an intra-site redirect or content change. In-unit clicks are usually tracked via a 302 redirect. Also known as click-downs, click-ups and click-withins. See ad clicks.


Mobile inventory seen in a mobile application.


The ability to opt-out of ads within an app. See Ad choices.


Simply defined, an individual is a single person, consumer, entity or device user. These words are often used interchangeably.


Actual placement of an ad in a document, as recorded by the ad server.

Insertion Order

IOs are the contract between a marketer and a brand that specifies ad buy details.


When a video ad “streams” (plays) alongside (before/mid/after) video content.

Integral Ad Science Bid Expert

A platform that enables Tapad to assess the value of every ad opportunity across channels and screens, and make informed decisions that maximize ROI.

Interaction Rate

The proportion of users who interact with an ad or application. Some will be involuntary depending on where the ad or application is placed on screen, so it is highly dependent on placement.

Interactive Advertising

All forms of online, wireless and interactive television advertising, including banners, sponsorships, e-mail, keyword searches, referrals, slotting fees, classified ads and interactive television commercials.

Interactive Advertising Bureau

The IAB is a global, not-for-profit business organization that develops industry standards, conducts research and provides legal support for the online advertising industry.

Interactive Marketing Unit

The standard ad unit sizes endorsed by IAB.

Intermediaries or Facilitators

Intermediaries/Facilitators are often lumped into the server category given their critical role in the process. This would be any of the other intermediary ad decisioning mechanisms that ultimately funnel to the ad server of record. These intermediators play a variety of roles from actual asset serving to helping advertisers and publishers with analytics and attribution. Tapad is investing heavily in this area and the ability to provide unified cross-device analytics and attribution are core to the value that we offer.

Internet Protocol Address

An IP Address is a set of numeric values that identify computers on a network. Typical IP addresses look like these: or


When an ad appears before the actual webpage. Also known as transition ads, intromercial ads and splash pages.


See Insertion order.

IP Address

See Internet Protocol Address.


Key Performance Indicator

(KPI) A business metric used to evaluate factors that are crucial to the success of an organization; demonstrates how effectively a company is achieving key business objectives; A set of quantifiable values that a company or industry uses to gauge or measure performance.


Specific words entered into a search engine that indicate the content of a document or website.

Keyword Targeting

Targeting websites or documents that contain specific keywords.


See Key Performance Indicator


Landing Page

The page a user is directed to after clicking an ad.

Last-Click Attribution

Purchase attributed to the last click the consumer makes toward purchasing an item.


The time interval between request and display of content and ad.


The % increase in performance due to advertising or marketing efforts.

Location-Base Targeting

A technique that delivers ads to consumers based on a specific geographic location.

Login Data

1st party data that uniquely defines an individual via the information they use to gain access to services like social media, email, news, and e-commerce sites.

Lookalike Modeling

A technique that helps build larger audiences from smaller audience segments. Audiences included in a lookalike model share similar characteristics of the original audience segment. Lookalike modeling helps advertisers expand reach, but sacrifice accuracy as segment size increases.


Mac Address

Media Access Control. A unique ID that computer chip manufacturers assign to network interface cards during fabrication.

Match Rate

The number of device IDs a partner has synced with Tapad that match to a device ID that already existed in Tapad’s data base, divided by the total number of device IDs a partner has synced with Tapad over a specific period of time.

Media Buying

Online ad buying by ad agencies (or other entities) usually on behalf of brands, or directly by brands themselves.

Mobile Application Opt-Out

Tools that provide comprehensive opt-out coverage. Users who employ opt-out tools are opting out of ads that have been tailored to their interests. They will then receive only ads that have not been curated. Opt out services include: Ghostery (formerly Evidon) iOS, TRUSTe iOS, Ghostery (formerly Evidon) Android. For more information, visit the the Digital Advertising Alliance website. See opt-out.

Mobile Rich Media

Digital ads that contains video or interactive components. See Expandable and Mobile Rich Media Ads and Technical Specifications for Creatives.

Multi-Screen or Multi-Channel

Multi-screen and multi-channel speak to the variety of devices available to marketers, but do not necessarily imply that messaging is in sync from one platform to another. With multi-screen and multi-channel approaches, silos within marketing teams can and do exist, while cross-device marketing requires these silos to be torn down.



See Network Advertising Initiative.

Native Advertising

Paid advertising designed to blend in with editorial content.

Network Advertising Initiative

NAI refers to a group of third party networks advertisers, which has developed a set of principles in conjunction with the Federal Trade Commission. The NAI is committed to consumer privacy, Internet advertising practices and the expansion of electronic commerce. To learn more visit

Network Interface Card

NIC is a computer component that lets you connect to the Internet.


See Network Interface Card.


A device (desktop, laptop, tablet, phone, etc.) in the Device Graph.



See Online Behavioral Advertising.


See Original Equipment Manufacturer


The ability to download or purchase video, audio, or information immediately by clicking something on the screen that refers to that choice.

On-Demand Video

Video media that is immediately available to a user. Hulu, YouTube, and Netflix are examples of services that offer On-demand video. See on-demand.

On-Site Measurement

When a server has the ability to measure on-site campaigns and analyze traffic received on its own site.

Online Behavioral Advertising

Commonly known as OBA. See Behavioral Targeting.

Open Auction

A programmatic market place where real-time bidding (RTB) occurs. See RTB.

Opportunity To See

OTS refers to when a product or service is successfully displayed on a user’s computer screen.


A process that delivers specific ads to consumers who have asked to receive them.


A process that gives users the choice not to receive specific ads.

Original Equipment Manufacturer

Another name for TV manufacturer. Example; Samsung, Sony, VIZIO, etc.


Opportunity to See.


See Over The Top

Over The Top

The delivery of content to a TV without the use of coaxial cables. OTT uses the internet to deliver content to devices. This can be both hardware and software. Hardware examples include Apple TV, Roku, or Chromecast. Software examples include Netflix or Hulu.

Overlap Rate

The number of device IDs a partner has synced with Tapad that match to a device ID Tapad has previously sighted, divided by the total number of device IDs in that partner’s database.



The rate at which a digital ad campaign uses up its pre-set number of impressions (for a fixed/reserved campaign) or budget (for an auction-based/unreserved campaign); campaigns can pace evenly or unevenly.

Paid Media

Publicity gained through advertising.

Performance Advertising

A form of advertising based on campaign performance. The brand pays based on results, usually on a cost-per-click (CPC) basis.

Performance Pricing Models

An advertising model in which advertisers pay based on a set of agreed upon performance criteria (percentage of online revenues, delivery of new sales leads, etc.). See CPA, CPC, CPL, CPO, CPS, CPT.


Aggregating previous online activity to match non-ad related information to users.

Personally Identifiable Information

PII is data that can be used to identify and target specific individuals.


See Personally Identifiable Information.


A pixel is a line of code which is used by a website or third party to assign online activities to a computer or browser. The use of a pixel allows websites to record, for example, that a user has visited a particular web page or clicked on a particular ad.


Devices used to deliver content (e.g., iPhone, Android, Computer, Connected TV, etc.).

Post Click

A way to measure consumer behavior after they click an ad. Also used to link a conversion to a particular site.

Post View

A way to measure consumer behavior after they view an ad. Also used to link a conversion to a particular site.


A linear video spot that appears after the video content completes. See Preroll.


The proportion of edges created in a graph that have been correctly identified. Can be calculated as true positives / (true positives + false positives). The term “precision” is often referred to as “Positive Predictive Value” and sometimes incorrectly referred to as “accuracy.”


A preroll video ad is an in-stream video ads that occurs before the video content the user has requested. See also postroll.

Primary ID

A Device ID that a partner has synced or shared with Tapad that shares an edge with one or more related IDs in the Tapad Device Graph.™


The ability of individuals to control the sharing of personal information.

Probabilistic Data

Refers to less accurate, more scalable field values (wifi, email, etc.) that are compared between two records (deterministic data unique identifiers). Each field is assigned a weight that indicates how closely the two field values match. The sum of the individual fields weights indicated the likelihood of a match between two records.


Automated buying and selling of digital media.

Programmatic Ad Buying

The use of software to facilitate automated media buying in real-time.


An individual or organization that prepares, issues, and disseminates content for public distribution or sale via one or more media.

Publisher Ad Tag

Code that is placed on a publisher’s web page that calls an ad server for the purposes of displaying an advertisement.

Publisher Pixel

An object embedded in a web page (typically a 1x1 image pixel) that calls a web server for purposes of tracking some kind of user activity.

Pulse TV

A unified cross-device measurement capability leveraging linear TV data through a partnership with first-party data suppliers.


Rate Card

The list of advertising prices and products and packages offered by a media company.


Events that happen “live” at a particular moment. When one chats in a chat room, or sends an instant message, one is interacting in real time.

Real-Time Bidding

The RTB acronym indicates a real-time system for either bidding on or buying ad inventory. The initial RTB ecosystems evolved from the efforts of DSPs to create a more efficient exchange of inventory. Due to these roots, RTB ecosystems put significant emphasis on user information (demographic and behavioral data, for example), while discounting the situation information (the publisher and context).

Real-Time Buying

The RTB acronym indicates a real-time system for either bidding on or buying ad inventory. The initial RTB ecosystems evolved from the efforts of DSPs to create a more efficient exchange of inventory. Due to these roots, RTB ecosystems put significant emphasis on user information (demographic and behavioral data, for example), while discounting the situation information (the publisher and context).


The rate at which the correct edges are found (“recalled”) when testing for true positives. The equation is calculated as (true positives / true positives + false negatives). This is also known as the True Positive Rate.

Related ID

A device ID that shares an edge in the Tapad Device Graph,™ with the primary ID. In the Tapad Device Graph,™ "Related IDs" are tied to a single entity.

Repeat Purchasers

Visitors who have made at least two purchases and who have come back to the site at least one time subsequent to their second purchase.

Request For Proposal

RFP - when a media buyer provides documentation to a media vendor detailing the buyer’s needs regarding a campaign he is currently in planning for in order for the vendor to provide a media plan which the buyer can purchase to meet those needs. For example, can include formats, targeting, pricing, campaign studies, special serving fees, etc.

Responsive Design

Websites that adapt to multiple screens (computers, mobile phones, tablets, etc.) for optimal user experience.


Serving ads across the web and other platforms to consumers who have previously visited an advertiser’s website.

Return on Investment

ROI is a ratio of revenue to cost across industries for ads — not including retargeted ads.

Returning Purchasers

Visitors with one prior site purchase who then make subsequent visits in which they either do not purchase or purchase a second time but subsequently do not return.

Revenue Per Visitor

The amount of revenue made per visitor, which is calculated by dividing the overall revenue in a given time period by the total site visits.


Request for information or request for invoice.


Request for proposal.

Rich Media

Ads that contain video, audio, and interactive elements.


See Return on Investment.


See Revenue per Visitor.


Real-time bidding refers to the buying and selling of online ad impressions through real-time auctions that occur in the time it takes a webpage to load.



A Server-to-Server connection.


The total number of connected IDs in the Tapad Device Graph.™


See Software Development Kit.

Search Engine Marketing

A type of Internet marketing associated with the researching, submitting and positioning of a website within search engines to achieve maximum visibility. Involves SEO, keyword research, competitive analysis, paid listings and other search engine services that will increase search traffic to your site.

Search Engine Optimization

(SEO) The process of getting traffic from the “free,” “organic,” “editorial” or “natural” search results on search engines. Aims to provide better organic search results. Google, Bing, and Yahoo! are considered primary search engines.


See Search Engine Marketing


See Search Engine Optimization

Server-to-Server Connection

A S2S connection or interface between two computer systems where the user agent's IP or source address represents the computer system versus a particular user.

Server-to-Server Data Collection

A data transfer methodology that transfers data in real time or on a set schedule between servers.

Set-Top Box

A device electronic device that connects to a TV providing connectivity to the Internet, game systems, or cable systems.


Visitors who have never purchased on any previous visit or who have purchased one time but have not since returned to the site.


The data that is derived from an action taken on a device, such as time of day, IP address, device proximity, behavioral data, or other meta data.


The practice of brands and ad agencies creating and buying ads for one medium only, usually in isolation from other media outlets or platforms.

SKI (Key Success Indicator)

Another name for Key Performance Indicator (See KPI)

Social Engagement

The volume of comments, likes, shares and other interactions with a brand post.

Social Media Platform

A website or app that enables the development, deployment and management of social media.

Social Network

An online platform that gives users the ability to connect with one or more groups of friends.

Social Sentiment

Ranking social mentions from one (negative) to ten (positive) in order to track the effectiveness of social marketing efforts.

Software Development Kit

SDK is a self-contained code that helps publishers and media partners collect data from mobile apps installed on iOS or Android platforms.


The percentage of true non-edges that are correctly identified as such. Can be calculated as true negatives / (false positives + true negatives). Also known as True Negative Rate.


See Supply-side Platform.

Static Ad Placement/Static Rotation

1) Ads that remain on a Web page for a specified period of time; 2) Embedded ads.

Statistical ID

Also known as a fingerprint, this is an identifier that is derived from device and browser information (such as IP address, user agent, font settings, screen resolution, advertising IDs, and plug-ins) that are used to create a statistical, unique identifier, with or without the availability of cookies, that allows for the persistent recognition of that device over time.

Strength Score

A Strength Score measures the strength of the relationship between connected nodes in the Device Graph. Tapad uses these scores to help identify devices that are more likely to belong to a single household, user, or group of related users than devices with lower scores. These values quantify the relationship between devices in the graph and help make accurate, cross-device targeting possible.


Publishers such as Google or Facebook that have a persistent user identifier across all devices (and have native apps as well as websites).


An interstitial format developed by Unicast which is fully pre-cached before playing. Specs are 550 x 480 pixels (2/3 of screen), up to 100K file size and up to 20 seconds in length.


Publisher inventory or ad slots available for serving ads on web pages.

Supply-side Platform

SSP is a company or service that provides ad space to demand-side platforms in real time. SSPs often aggregate supply from publishers.



Software code that an advertiser provides to a publisher or ad network that calls the advertiser’s ad server for the purposes of displaying an advertisement.

Target Audience

The intended audience for an ad.

Targeted Advertisement

An advertisement that is shown only to users exhibiting specific attributes or in a specific context or at a particular time of day.


Delivering specific content to a selected audience. See Behavioral targeting.


The application of scientific knowledge for practical purposes.

Text Ads

Ads that don't contain images, video, or interactive features.

The Pantone Matching System

(PMS) A proprietary color space used in the manufacture of colored paint, fabric and plastics.

Third-Party Ad Server

Outsourced, independent companies that specialize in managing, maintaining, serving, tracking and analyzing the results of online ad campaigns.

Third-Party Cookies

Cookies placed on a user's computer by another site or service other than the website currently being visited. See Cookies.


A record of the date and time of a particular action or event. Examples include: UNIX timestamps (the number of seconds since 1 January 1970); Variations of the typical mm-dd-yyyy hh:mm:ss format.


Identifiers contained in the User-agent string that provide specific details about the program making the request. Tokens vary among programs; for example, the tokens in the Internet Explorer User-agent string describe the browser, the operating system, and the current browser mode. See User-agent string.


The practice of informing consumers about the methods used to deliver ads to them. See Ad Choices.

True Negative

A correct prediction that an edge does not exist between two device.

True Positive

A correct prediction that an edge exists between two device IDs.



See Unique Device Identifier.


User Interface.


The name for Tapad’s platform for our proprietary cross-screen technology. It facilitates our pinpoint advertising, analytics and personalization services for advertisers, publishers, marketing technology companies and programmatic businesses.

Unify Tech

The industry’s definitive cross-screen conversation, is an annual invite-only summit, presented by Tapad, leading provider of unified, cross-device technology, that educates attendees on impacts of our connected world.

Unique Browser

An identified and unduplicated Cookied Browser that accesses Internet content or advertising during a measurement period. This definition requires taking account for the potentially inflationary impact of cookie deletion among certain of the cookied browsers that access Internet content.

Unique Cookie

A count of unique identifier that represents unduplicated instances of Internet activity (generally visits) to Internet content or advertising during a measurement period.

Unique Device

An unduplicated computing device that is used to access Internet content or advertising during a measurement period. A count of unduplicated devices necessarily accounts for multiple browser usage on an individual computer or other computing device.

Unique Device Identifier

UDID is a 40-character string assigned to certain devices and stored in a web or mobile cookie. Each UDID character is a numeral or a letter of the alphabet and can be used to monitor subscriber behavior.

Unique User ID

UUID is a way to identify users without disclosing personal information and associate them with segments and audiences.

Unique Users

See Unique Visitors

Unique Visitor

See Unique Visitors.

Unique Visitors

Unique individual or browser which has accessed a site or application and has been served unique content and/or ads such as e-mail, newsletters, interstitials or pop-under ads. Unique visitors can be identified by user registration, cookies, or third-party measurement like ComScore or Nielsen. Reported unique visitors should filter out bots.

User Agent

Identification data sent by your browser to a web server. A basic user agent, or user-agent string, contains information such as browser type and version, operating system information and other data such as tokens, which provide specific details about the program making the request. See Tokens. A sample user agent string looks similar to the following: User-Agent: Mozilla/5.0 (Windows NT 6.3; Trident/7.0; rv:11.0) like Gecko.

User Agent String

A field in a server log file which identifies the specific browser software and computer operating system making the request.

User Data

Information about users based on behavior, demography, income, age, gender, etc. User data is usually associated with a unique user ID (UUID).


See Unique User ID.



See Video Ad Serving Template.


See Video Completion Rate.


A point where two lines meet. Therefore, in the Tapad Device Graph,™ vertices are nodes and nodes are devices.

Video Ad Serving Template

VAST is a universal standard template used for serving ads in video players.

Video Ads

Ads that contain video.

Video Completion Rate

Measurement of when a video ad runs all the way through to the end.

Video Game Console

An interactive entertainment computer or electric device that manipulates the video display signal of a display device (a television, monitor, etc.) to display a game. The term video game console is typically used solely for playing video games, but the new generation of consoles may play various types of media such as music, TV shows, and movies.

Video Installs

Number of Video players that have been placed by a user onto their page. Also called embed, grab or post. A video player is a type of Widget.

Video On Demand

Usually refers to services offered by cable companies through set-top boxes.

Video Player

A computer program that translates data into video for viewing.

Video Player Ad Interface

VPAID creates a common interface between video players and ad units, enabling rich interactive in-stream ads.


The duration of time an ad plays while partially in view (minimal 50% of the ad on the page).


See Video Player Ad Interface.



See Wireless Application Protocol.

Wireless Application Protocol

WAP is a set of standards and web browsers for mobile devices.



See Cross-device.


Refers to Cross-platform. See Cross-device.



The percentage of clicks vs. impressions on an ad within a specific page. Also called ad click rate.


Zombie Cookies

Cookies that return or persist even after being deleted.